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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)
Volume 9, Issue 4, April 2018, pp. 468–478, Article ID: IJMET_09_04_053
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=9&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed
PREPARATION AND MODELLING OF
COMPOSITE MATERIALS (POLYESTERALUMINA)
AS IMPLANT IN HUMAN BODY
Zainab S. Al-khafaji
Information Technology Center, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq
Nabaa S. Radhi and Sura A. Mohson
Doctor, University of Babylon, College of Materials Engineering, Iraq
ABSTRACT
Due to spreading the composite materials in different life areas, there have been
many researches dealing with composite materials. This research aims to study the
possibility of manufacturing materials composite particles of Unsaturated Polyester
reinforced by ceramic particles of Alumina. Unsaturated polyester resin used widely
in different industries because of good mechanical and physical properties such as
stability of dimensions, the ability of interaction as well easy to forming and low cost.
In this research the effect of adding Alumina as a strength phase to unsaturated
polyester resin has studied, in this study the unsaturated polyester resin strengthen
with different percentage (2.5, 5, 10)% from Alumina has been executed and then the
mechanical behaviour of prepare samples has been studied. The tests include
(bending, density, water absorption, hardness and Modelling ANSYS) and the results
show that composite materials have less density al 10% Al2O3 which is decreased by
6%and largest result for bending which is 60% and also less water absorbing which is
0.6%. On the other hands adding Al2O3 in any ratio (2.5, 5, 10)% increase the
hardness of unsaturated polyester resin as well as reduction the strain as shown in
ANSYS Modelling.
Keywords: Alumina, Absorption, ANSYS, Bending, Density test, Hardness,
Unsaturated Polyester Resin.
Cite this Article: Zainab S. Al-khafaji, Nabaa S. Radhi and Sura A. Mohson,
Preparation and Modelling of Composite Materials (Polyester-Alumina) As Implant in
Human Body, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 9(4),
2018, pp. 468–478.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=9&IType=4
Zainab S. Al-khafaji, Nabaa S. Radhi and Sura A. Mohson
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 469 editor@iaeme.com
1. INTRODUCTION
The composite materials were appeared and using widely in many applications that improved
the life quality since hundreds years ago. The later usage of composite materials indicate
presence of many characteristics that suitable for many industrial applications because these
materials combine the properties of two or more substances that exceed the disadvantages of
each material. In addition, they have the ability to control their properties either by the type
and proportions of their constituent materials or by their design and manufacturing methods,
(Kereem, 2002& K. N. Kadhim and Ghufran 2016).
Therefore, the designers and engineers are focused on the effective role of engineering
materials that have entered the various industrial fields. They have been manufactured by
multiple and successive processes to produce the required design and construction structures
that fit the functional performance as well as analysis its failure in this performance. In
response to the requirements of development and renaissance Which is aimed at improving
the performance of the product in terms of design and manufacturing. In structural
engineering there are an attempts to form structures characterise of strength, durability and
reliability in terms of their durability and resistance to corrosion (Hand book, 2002).
In 1976, Lerchenthal & Brenman used epoxy and unsaturated polyester resins reinforced
with cement and inorganic materials such as kaolin and talc as fillings ranging from (85-20%)
for the purpose of obtaining high resistance and light weight of materials in non-metallic
structures. Hence bending resistance was calculated for different volume fractions With
different types of granules. The results showed a decrease in epoxy bending resistance due to
poor bonding between the overlapping phases of the material while polystyrene showed better
results.
Also the Toughness of Fracture (Kc) for the composite substance granules are affected by
the type and size of the added particles and the nature of bonding between the phases. Maik &
Krysztafkiewicz (1981), they studied the strengthen of the materials by using particles, and
concluded that the interaction of particles with Plastic material in any form leads to better
results. And the particles are classified on this basis into inactive particles and active particles,
and the processing of inactive particles by the bonding material becomes more effective.
While Turner and Haque studied the effect of adding ceramic particles on the hardness of
polymeric material. And they were concluded that adding small ratio of ceramic particles
ranged (5-3%) reduce the hardness of polymeric material due to the stresses combined at the
defects that caused by the addition of the particles. While the hardness is increased when the
volumetric fracture is increased.
On the other hand, a group of researchers dealt with particle composite materials from
another side, Sardar (2011) studied the distribution of particles in the polymeric composite
material depending on the intensity of the distribution of particles and their volumetric
fraction. In the conclusion he found that the mechanical properties improved when the
particles were more uniformly distributed.
Marur, et.al.(2004) study the effect of the particles size and volumetric fracture on the
fracture durability for the epoxy resin supported by the particles of alumina spherical which
are in different particles volume. And they calculated the strength of the fracture and found
that the particles size had an important effect on the fracture strength at a 5?m particles
fracture size.
Many years ago, Polyester fiber used in wide variety of useful purposes as an industrial
applications such as garments clothes and home furnishings like bedspreads, sheets, pillows,
furniture, carpets and even curtains. While Unsaturated Polyesters which is organic material,
generally the product of natural or synthetic origin with a high molecular weight and with no
Preparation and Modelling of Composite Materials (Polyester-Alumina) As Implant in Human Body
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melting point Polyesters are used worldwide as the matrix material for reinforced composites,
or RTP (reinforced thermoset plastics). Everyone is familiar with the use of this material for
boats, recreational vehicles, and a wide variety of other structural applications, such as tanks
and portable shelters, (Budinski and Budinski, 1999). While this research will show different usage
for Unsaturated Polyesters resin after reinforced it with Alumina particles, (using of
Unsaturated Polyesters resin and Alumina mixture in medical applications specially in bones
repair and dental industry.
2. MATERIALS AND METHOD
2.1. Materials
2.1.1. Unsaturated Polyester Resin
Unsaturated Polyester resin (UP) was used as a base material from Saudi Arabia company
SIR in the form of a viscous liquid at room temperature, a type of thermosets (1200Kg / m3)
(MEKP) (Methyl- Ethyl Keton Peroxide) in the form of a transparent liquid and added to the
polysaccharide resin saturated with 2gm of crucified per 100gm of polystyrene resin
Unsaturated at room temperature. The durat ion of hardening of the resin used is 3 hours at
room temperature, but this period varies according to the amount of added sulphate and
laboratory conditions surrounding the experiment.
Table 1 Some properties of unsaturated polysaccharide resin (Rabab, 2009).
The durability
of the fracture
(MPa.m0.5)
Coefficient of
elasticity
(GPa.)
Tensile
strength
(MPa.)
Thermal
conductivity
(W/m.oC)
Density
(kg/m3)
1200 0.17 70.3 -103 2.06 – 4.41 0.6
2.1.2. Aluminium Oxide AL2O3
Alumina is considered an inorganic Insulators and Alumina primary source is kaolin feldspar
and clays. Alumina is characterized by high resistance to high temperatures and maintains this
resistance over to 1200° C. It is also gives high hardness (4-2) times the hardness of Tungsten
carbide or Zirconium and is highly resistant to abrasion and chemical attack, Table 2 shows
some properties of physical alumina., (Auerkari, 1996).
Table 2 Some physical properties of alumina, (Auerkari, 1996).
Property
Fusion
temperature (c*)
Density
(g/cm3)
Molecular
weight
Expansion
(*10-6/c*)
Value 2040 3098 102 0.063
2.2. Sample Preparation
The manufacturing methods for composite materials are numerous and each one has
advantages and disadvantages, as well as each method apply in the appropriate field. In this
research the manual method had been used to prepare and pour the samples which could
summarised in the following steps:
1. Weight a quantity of unsaturated polystyrene which should be weighed according to
the size of the mould and then(0.5%) of the catalyst with (2%) of the hardened
materials added to the mixture.
Zainab S. Al-khafaji, Nabaa S. Radhi and Sura A. Mohson
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 471 editor@iaeme.com
2. Weighting the required amount of strengthen material (Alumina powder Al2O3)
depending on the required proportion of reinforcement (2.5, 5 & 10)%.
3. Then mixing the base and the strengthen materials together along with the catalyst and
the hardened materials at the room temperature. And the mixing process should be
slowly to avoid bubbles and continuously for 10 minutes until homogenized the
mixture and raise the temperature of the mixture which refers to start the reaction
process. The mixture must have a specific operation viscosity to prevent and protect
particles against deposition.
4. The liquid mixture poured as a stream form from one side of the glass mould which
shown in Figure 2. To prevent production of air bubbles in sample mass which causes
failure). So casting process should be flow continuously and regularly into all mould
areas until the mould is filled to the desired level for this reason the mould must be
completely flat.
5. Then leaving the mixture at the mould for 24 hr. to get hardness in whole sample
which then dried at the oven for one hour and at a temperature of 70° C. And this
process is important to complete the polymerization and obtain the best tangle and to
remove the stresses that generated during the manufacturing process.
6. To perform the tests, the samples should be cut according to the specifications of each
experiment by using a strip saw with very smooth teeth to ensure that no vibration
during cutting the sample and the smoothness of the teeth of the saw will avoid the
distortions that may occur during cutting. While using the casing machine for
adjusting the dimensions of the sample and the polishing process is done by using
polishing sheets with 400 degrees.
Polymer samples that used in the experimental part prepared by using Unsaturated
Polyester alone, and other samples of prepared from unsaturated polyester with Alumina
powder in three proportions (2.5, 5 & 10%) for each ratio there were three sample for each
test to obtain high accuracy in results.
Figure 2 The Casting Mould.
2.3. Experimental Work
The experiments as following:
2.3.1. Bending Strength
According to American standard (ASTM D-790) the test was carried out and the dimensions
of the sample was (4.8 × 13 × 191) mm as shown in Figure 3, (ASTM Standard)
Preparation and Modelling of Composite Materials (Polyester-Alumina) As Implant in Human Body
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Figure 3 A sketch of bending resistance sample.
2.3.2. Density Test
According to American standard (ASTM-D792) the test was carried out on samples consist of
unsaturated polystyrene reinforced with different Alumina powder (Al2O3) proportions (2.5, 5 &
10)%. Firstly, the dry samples weighted and then immersed in a graduated glass flask filled
with distilled water Then apply the following equation:
(1)
Where:
Wd: the dry weight of the sample in grams; Wi: the weight of the sample is suspended and
immersed in distilled water in grams.
Specific gravity S.G can be converted to a density by multiply a specific gravity (S.G) by
the density of distilled water which equal to (0.9975), (ASTM Standard).
2.3.3. Water Absorption Test
According to American standard (ASTM-D570) the test was carried out on samples consist of
unsaturated polystyrene reinforced with different Alumina powder (Al2O3) proportions (0,
2.5, 5 & 10)% and then the sample placed in glass flask filled with water at room temperature
(25 ± 2). The weights of the samples was calculated before and after immersion in water
every 24 hours and the process of extracting, drying, weighting and then returned the sample
to the water was continued for four days. And the absorption ratio for each sample can be
calculated by using the following formula (Al-Kadi, 2004):
Water Absorption% = (Ws-Wd) / Wd) * 100 (2)
where:
Wd: The dry weight of the sample.
Ws: sample weight after immersion in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours.
2.3.4. Modelling
The ANSYS program is one of the most powerful internationally recognized in the field of
advanced studies and researches. The program began marketing in 1970 and is now used all
over the world in the fields of civil engineering, space science, self-propulsion, industry,
nuclear research, energy services, electrical engineering and electronics. In addition, many
consulting companies and hundreds of advanced universities in the world use the program for
education, research and interpretation of phenomena, (Samer, 2009).
In the current research, ANSYS version 15 and Element 10 of Node 187 were used while
the materials properties which used in the research were as shown in Table 5.
The Young modulus and density properties of the materials used were theoretically
calculated based on the rule of mixture (Jones, 1975 & Bolten, 1998).
Zainab S. Al-khafaji, Nabaa S. Radhi and Sura A. Mohson
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 473 editor@iaeme.com
Table 5 The Young modulus and density properties of the materials, (Jones, 1975 & Bolten, 1998).
Samples Proportions
0% (Al2O3) +
100% (PE)
2.5% (Al2O3)+
97.5% (PE)
5% (Al2O3)+
95% (PE)
10% (Al2O3) +
90% (PE)
Young modulus (Gpa) 4.41 13.67 22.93 41.47
Density(kg/m3) 1200 1270 1339 1478
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Bending strength test
The bending properties usually depend on the nature of the bonds between the fillers
(strengthen materials) and the base material as shown in Figure 4 which shows the
relationship between the bending resistance and the volumetric fracture proportion (0, 2.5, 5
& 10)% (Alumina ratios that added to Polyester). Figure 4 shows that increasing in bending
resistance when the Alumina ratio increased and the maximum stress had been gotten a 10%
Alumina (Al2O3) ratio due to the nature of the ceramic material (the reinforcing phase) which
is characterized by its strength and its good mechanical properties compared to the base
phase. Where the reinforcement phase plays a major role in restricting and preventing the
continuation of sliding Polyester strings as well known, these strings need a great effort to
bend to be able to pass through the narrow spaces between the reinforcement particles (Joyce
and Bronzino, 2007).
3.2. Density test
Figure 5 shows the relationship between the density of the samples and the amount of alumina
(Al2O3) that used to strengthen them. Figure 5 shows a positive relation between the density
of the samples and (Al2O3) ratio because Al2O3 density is 3.98 g/cm3 while the density of
unsaturated Polyester is 1.2 g/cm3 and any (Al2O3) ratio will increase the whole density of the
composite materials samples. This increasing because the density as known is equal to
(mass/volume) and the volume is constant for all samples so the increasing in the mass will
lead to increasing the density depending on the following formula:
?c ?m*vm+?r*vr (3)
whereas:
?r: the density of the reinforced phase with (Al2O3), ?m: the density of the base phase
(Polyester), ?c: density of composite material in g/cm3.
Vr: volumetric fraction for the reinforced phase, Vm: the volumetric fraction for the base
phase.
3.3. Water Absorption Test
Figure 6 shows the relationship between the water absorption percentage and the ratio of
additive reinforcement materials (Al2O3) that added to unsaturated polyester. The proportion
of absorbance is affected by the particles size and surface area of the reinforcement particles
(Aziz, 2009). As notice from Figure6 the relationship between weight of the samples with the
duration of water immersion in days is positive relation which conclude that with the increase
the immersion period the absorption percentage will increase. And this result is expected
because the base phase is a polymeric material which is unsaturated, that means it has the
ability to absorb water. However; with the increase of the amount of the reinforcement
materials will notice a significant decrease in the percentage of absorption for the same testing
time. So, the 10% of (Al2O3) has the lowest absorption rate and this is due to adding a
reinforcement phase, which is a ceramic material with stable physical properties.
Preparation and Modelling of Composite Materials (Polyester-Alumina) As Implant in Human Body
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 474 editor@iaeme.com
Figure 4 The relationship between the required stress for bending and the proportion of Al2O3.
Figure 5 The relationship between density and the proportion of Al2O3.
Figure 6 Absorption test
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 2.5 5 10
Stress (N/m)
Al2O3%
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 2.5 5 10
Density (g/cm3)
Al2O3 %
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 1 2 3 4 5
Weight (gm)
Time (day)
% بولي استر 100
Zainab S. Al-khafaji, Nabaa S. Radhi and Sura A. Mohson
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 475 editor@iaeme.com
3.4. Modelling (ANSYS)
Figure 7 A poly-ester model without reinforcement (A)Model created by using the ANSYS program,
B) Make a mesh for the model, (C) Calculate the stress, (D) Calculate the strain.
Figure 8 A reinforced polystyrene model with 2.5% Al2O3 (A) Model created by using the ANSYS
program, B) Make a mesh for the model, (C) Calculate the stress, (D) Calculate the strain.
A B
A
C D
A B
C D
Preparation and Modelling of Composite Materials (Polyester-Alumina) As Implant in Human Body
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Figure 9 A reinforced polystyrene model with 5% Al2O3 (A)Model created by using the ANSYS
program, B) Make a mesh for the model, (C) Calculate the stress, (D) Calculate the strain.
Figure 10 A reinforced polystyrene model with 10% Al2O3 (A)Model created by using the ANSYS
program, B) Make a mesh for the model, (C) Calculate the stress, (D) Calculate the strain.
A B
C D
A B
C D
Zainab S. Al-khafaji, Nabaa S. Radhi and Sura A. Mohson
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 477 editor@iaeme.com
4. CONCLUSION:
This work included the improvement of the unsaturated polyester resin by alumina filler
particles, with different volume fractions of filler particles. Also, some of mechanical
properties and water absorption percentage, which the conclusions are as follows:
1. The improvement of the unsaturated polyester resin by alumina filler particles leads to
an increase in the blending strength, hardness and density as the volume fraction of the
filler particles increases until it reaches a maximum value of (10%), of prepared
composite material.
2. Water absorption percentage of the prepared composite materials decreases with
Increasing volume fraction of alumina filler particles.
3. The maximum Von Misses stresses are found in the prepared composite materials and
the positive value of residual stresses at 500N for PE=3.74 MPa,10% Al2O3=2.54Mpa,
2.5% Al2O3=1.36Mpa, 5% Al2O3=1.1Mpa.
4. The maximum Von Misses strains are concentrated in the prepared composite
materials and the positive value of strain at 500N for PE=0,001124,5% Al2O3=0.519e-
3, 10% Al2O3=0.103e-3, 2.5% Al2O3=0.310e-4.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The Ministry of Higher Education, and Babylon University in Iraq is gratefully
acknowledged. The experimental part was performed in the laboratory of Babylon University.
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  • Alumina, Absorption, ANSYS, Bending, Density test, Hardness, Unsaturated Polyester Resin.ذ

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